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Tuesday, May 14, 2013

Balang (Balai Nyabong )of Katibas.

This is  story of my Ancestor(Aki) (die on Guilty Conscience)..mati digayang(prosecuted) in Sibu in year 1868. In fact ,Balang of Katibas (also known as Balai Nyabong) is my ancestor from my grandmother ..the monument of Balang was erected 145 years after his death on 21.4.2013..at my Village(Kampung) Rh Jarop Nanga Sepadi Katibas Song Sarawak..(the new settlement of Balang's Family after Nanga Ririk located 3 km away from old village(Temawai Lama) where the Balang's generation lives(more than 100 years ago)
"digayang - disayat enggau duku tauka sangkuh (diganyang/disembelih dalam jaku Melayu)"
The Katibas is an important tributary of the longest river of Malaysia, the Rejang, and is home to the native Iban of Sarawak. Along its banks and tributaries are scores of longhouses of all sizes .
The Monument (Tugu Peringatan)-Balang (Balai Nyabong ) of Katibas 
He is the one who's helping Rajah Charles Brooke during The Great Kayan Expedition of 1863.(Kayau Kayan 1863) (In the book Ten Years in Sarawak, Charles Brooke.).."During the era when Iban & Kayan People still on the warfare against each others"
The Monument (Tugu Peringatan)-Balang (Balai Nyabong ) of Katibas 
erected on 21.4.2013 at Nanga Sepadi Km 4 ,Jalan Takan Katibas Song Sarawak
"Sandau Ari"..
The Miring Ceremony held during  the erecting work for the BALANG OF KATIBAS's statue . 

In fact ,(Aki Balang)Balang of Katibas (also known as Balai Nyabong)
is my ancestor from my (inik)grandmother side.
"Dalam bup tu (Sarawak Pegai Rajah Brooke by Pegari Production )kami duai deka mantaika sekeda ari jerita ngenang tuai-tuai kitai Iban ke bisi kala ngujika pemerani diri nirika kayau ngelaban Rajah Brooke kelia kenyau ari taun 1841 nyentuk ngagai taun 1946.Sekeda ari tuai-tuai kitai Iban ke deka dikenang kami duai ba jerita tu iya nya baka sida Linggir (Mali Lebu), Orang Kaya Pemancha Dana (Bayang), Libau (Rentap), Pelima Mujah (Buah Raya), Aji seduai Nanang, Ranggau (Enjop) menyadi Balang (Balai Nyabong), Ngumbang (Berauh Langit), Lintong (Mua Hari), Kedu (Lang Ngindang), Bantin (Ijau Lelayang), Asun (Bah Tunggal) enggau mayuh agi tuai-tuai bukai ti deka dipansa enggau ngelansa baka sida Kana (Nitar Tanah) ari Engkari enggau siku tuai bansa Tanjong ari Kanowit ke benama Sawing."
In 1863 many Iban leaders from all over Sarawak gathered to join The Great Kayan Expedition which was lead by Charles Brooke himself. 
In the book Ten Years in Sarawak, Charles Brooke wrote:
"June 1st, 1863, at 3.30 pm, the assembly was collected on the hard stones. All such matters, as before related, are discussed on the earth and without any roof. About a hundred or more chiefs were present, squatting in a circle, when I joined, accompanied by Fitz Cruickshank, and we sat in centre. Then a silent ensued, and I told them that, as far as we were able, we must now arranged the proceedings and division to advance one after another, I begged that all would keep order, and not rush on or run unnecessary risks, as if they allowed their people to push past dangerous places, accidents must happen. Another point which I had always made known with great emphasis was, that the chiefs must be answerable for the behaviour of their crew, to allow no quarelling or fighting. And the lives of women and children must be spared, as they could not be enemies of men.

The first man to speak after I had finished was Balang of Katibas, who was an ugly little broad man, with jowl of hog. He had sparkling eyes, and was dressed in all the colours af rainbow. The Kayans had burnt his house, and taken all his property. He spoke exceedingly well, and I wished from my heart my speech could have been so telling. Iban Translation:("Rajah Charles Brooke bisi ngenang Kayau Kayan 1863 munyi tu, Orang ti bejaku nangkanka aku iya nya Balang ari Katibas. Iya ngena baju burung ke bechura baka emperaja (anak raja). Mata iya chalung, langkar tubuh iya numbas pemesai tang gamal iya jai laban mulut enggau nyawa iya mirah magang dibalut darah pinang. Bansa Kayan udah nunu rumah panjai iya lalu ngerampas sereta nabanka reta tengkira sida. Iya landik bendar bejaku lalu aku arap bendar ke utai ti udah dipadahka aku tadi ulih tangkap tauka peretika sida magang.”(Bup Iban Sarawak Pegai Rajah Brooke))
He said-"I have no wish to return if the force is not successful, and am prepared to stake everything on this attack. The enemy has deprived me of all my property already, and many of my relations and people have been killed; they may now cooked my head, if I can't get theirs." He added, "The chiefs, as Tuan says, should be responsible for their people; and I recommend others to follow my example, and beat their followers if they refuse to obey orders." Orang Kaya Gassing, of Skrang, spoke a little, and then a general conversation ensued upon their feelings, dreams, birds and omens. All was of satisfactory nature - very different from the tone had been some years ago, for they are gradually lessening these outward signs of mystery and paying more attention to realities. We then dispersed. In the afternoon I pulled in a small canoe, to inspect the beginning of rapids. At eventide our people were assembled on a large pebbly bed, engaged in all kinds of games, amidst shouts of laughter."
The Great Kayan Expedition of 1863. 
Early in 1863, the Tuan Muda, who was posted at Skrang, visited Betong fort. On his arrival, he directed the Assistant Resident, Mr. Watson, to call ail the leading chiefs, Bakir, OKP Nanang of the Padeh and Linggir of the Paku to come to meet him at the fort. When they came the Tuan Muda directed them to build warboats for a punitive expedition against the Kayans and Kejamans of the upper Rajang. The latter, had given refuge to Sawing, Tani and Skalai the murderers of the Government Officers Messrs. Fox and Steele at the Kanowit fort. Sibu was to be their point of assembly and the date for all to arrive at Sibu was fixed during this meeting.
From the Saribas, the Tuan Muda went to Kabong, then the headquarters of the Kalaka District, to meet Penghulu Minggat and Chulo “Tarang” for the same purpose. These two chiefs had migrated recently to the Awik and the upper Krian from the Rimbas.
Early in May 1863, all the Batartg Lupar, Saribas and Kalaka warboats assembled at Kabong to proceed to Sibu. On arrival at Sibu they found that Penghulu Minggat and Chulo “Tarang” boats had already arrived from the Krian and were waiting for the warriors from the Saribas and Skrang led by the Tuan Muda and Mr, Watson.
The Tuan Muda assembled the chiefs together. During the assembly he informed them that the purpose of the expedition was to punish the Kayans and Kejamans for hiding the murderers of Fox and Steele, and for making raids against the Iban of the upper tributaries of the Rajang River. He directed that the Saribas boats under OKP Nanang, Linggir, Bakir and the Krian flotilla under Penghulu Minggat and Chulo “Tarang” must not go far from his while going upriver into the enemy’s territory.
The force left Sibu on the next morning and went up the Rajang as far as the Kanowit fort where they stayed one night. At this station they were joined by the Kanowit Iban under Mujah “Buah Raya”, Ubong and Lintong “Moahari”. 
Early on the second day, the force left Kanowit and went up as far as the mouth of the Katibas River, where they spent another night. Here a force of Iban led by chiefs Balang, Ringgau, Unggat and Gerinang joined the expedition. At this time no Iban had migrated up the Rajang above the Katibas tributary. In the presence of the Tuan Muda, Balang vowed that he and his warriors would not retreat until they had killed many of the enemy to revenge all those of his people who had been killed by the Kayans.
From the mouth of the Katibas River the force went up the Rajang and spent the third night between the Kapit stream and the Baleh tributary. This force was the greatest that had ever joined in one expedition.
The force broke camp early on the fourth day, but due to difficulty in getting across the Pelagus rapids they only reached Pasir Nai by late afternoon. As the force arrived at Pasir Nai, the enemy under chief Dian Abun began shooting from their stockade at Nanga Sama.
Penghulu Minggat’s boat instantly advanced and landed at the fort. Shortly after landing, Penghulu Minggat’s warrior Luing led a party in an attack upon the fort. The door of the fort was closed, so Luing used a wooden shaft to ram the door open. As the door opened, Luing was speared and killed by a Kayan defender inside the fort. His body was promptly carried back to the boat by his friends. Due to this death, the Tuan Muda ordered that the force not venture beyond the enemy’s stockade that evening.
In the evening the Tuan Muda called a council of war, for upriver from this point lay the Kejaman and Kayan settlements. In the conference, he directed a number of trusted warriors to stand guard against a surprise attack on the government forces. After the warriors who were to guard the troops had been selected and had taken their posts, the Tuan Muda ordered all the Kanowits and the Rajangs to station them¬selves slightly upriver above the Iban aad Malay boats. This arrangement was made because only they could understand the Kejaman and Kayan dialects, if the enemy should came to attack the force. 
During the night, the enemy vacated the stockade. In the morning some of the Ibans and Malays said that they had heard the- enemy call the Rajang and the Kanowit peoples in their own dialect which the Iban and the Malay could not understand. Early that morning when the force surrounded the stockade, they found that it had indeed been vacated. 
Consequently, many native leaders suspected that the enemy had been allowed to escape because they had made a secret arrangement with the Kanowit and the Rajang peoples.
From Pasir Nai, the force proceeded up the Rajang. Aided by their intimate know¬ledge of the country above this place, the Katibas forces under Gerinang, Unggat and Balang raided one big Kejaman longhouse full of women and children, and killed or captured almost all the inhabitants. On their return from the expedition, their boats could hardly carry the enemy heads and the captives. They were helped to transport their loot, captives and heads by Kanowit warriors under Mujah “Buah Raya” and Lintong “Moahari”. The latter also killed a considerable number of enemies, but were not so fortunate as the Katibas group. 
Because of their ignorance of the country, the forces of the Saribas and Skrang were not so successful as those of Katibas. The warriors under OKP Nanang of the Padeh killed only a few of the enemy, as did those under Penghulu Minggat, Bakir and Chulo “Tarang”. The warriors under Linggir of Paku had better success, since those who joined Birai’s war boat killed and captured a considerable number of the enemy to add to those killed by the warriors who steered Linggir’s own boats. 
Besides killing and capturing the enemy, many Ibans took as loot valuable Kayan jars, knives and mats. Among those still remembered, Linggir of the Paku looted one sergiu jar now kept by his great-grand daughter at Tanjong, Paku. 
After the expedition was over a number of Kayan chiefs went down to Kanowit to submit themselves to the Tuan Muda. The Tuan Muda said that their submission could not be accepted unless the criminals Sawing, Skalai and Tani were surrendered to the government. The Kayan chiefs assured the Tuan Muda that they would hand over those criminals as requested, for the sake of peace in the region. Later the Kayans handed over Sawing to the Government and he was executed at Sibu. Skalai and Tani who had escaped were killed by the Kayans in the upper Rajang.

Iban unrest in the Katibas Rivers.
Early Iban Migration-(Part 3)

From Nanga Lubang Raya near the source of the Batang Ai, Naga and his brothers Sumping, Maoh, Api and Murap migrated to the Kanyau in Indonesian Borneo. Before they left the country they invited Temenggong Simpi Pala of Rantau Panjai to come with them. But the Temenggong refused as he was reluctant to leave behind his guardian spirit who lived at Bukit Kaong.

On their arrival in the Kanyau, Naga and his followers lived at Emperan Kawat and subsequently at Kerangan Labu. Here they were raided by lower Batang Ai Iban from Kumpang. Due to this trouble Naga led his followers to the headwaters of the Katibas on the Sarawak side of the border. In this new country they first settled at Jekelan and then later moved to Emperan where they were attacked by joint forces of Kantu’ and Embaloh Dayaks. These enemies came from the Kanyau and Ketunggau tributaries of the Kapuas River. To escape this danger they moved to Batu Gong, and then settled at Tekalit. While Naga was still living in the Katibas he transferred his chieftainship to his sons Unggat and Gerinang.
 Balang’s execution without trial, by a court of justice.Balang Mati di ganyang (hukum mati ) pada 1868

In 1868 when Mr. J.B. Cruickshank was serving as Resident in the Rejang, Unggat and Gerinang came to see him at Nanga Ngemah. When the Resident asked them of the general affairs of the Katibas, Unggat replied that all was tranquil with the exception of a senior warrior chief named Balang who had returned victoriously from the warpath against a tribe called the Lusum. Unggat told Mr. Craickshank that Balang and Ringgau had come to him and his brother Gerinang twice to invite them to join them to murder the Resident. He told Mr. Craickshank that Balang was to hold a feast next day in honour of his recent victory over the Lusum. Mr. Craickshank, upset by the news, told Unggat and Gerinang that he personally would attend Balang’s festival next day.

Early next day Mr. Cruickshank went to Balang’s longhouse. When he reached the longhouse landing place, he called for Balang to come down to fetch him up to the house. Balang was surprised by the arrival of the Resident whom he had not invited to the feast, but he reluctantly agreed to fetch him to his house. When Balang greeted him at his boat, Mr. Cruickshank ordered that he should be arrested, chained and brought down immediately to Sibu for detention. Later in the month it was said that Balang had been executed at Pulau Selalau near Sibu because of his reported plot to murder the Resident.

In retaliation Balang’s son-in-law, his uncle Enjop and the latter’s son publicly declared that they would fight against the rule of the Rajah of Sarawak in the Katibas River. The reason they gave was Balang’s execution without trial, by a court of justice.

Before the revolt began, the relatives of Balang already knew that Balang’s execution was due to Unggat’s jealously and the false story he had told the Resident about Balang’s intention to murder him. So Enjop and his relatives went to Unggat’s house, to force him and Gerinang to join their rebellion against the Rajah. Hearing this, Unggat said that the reason why Balang was executed was because he had raided the Lusum in the upper Rajang. They replied to Unggat that Balang would not have been sentenced to death for this, for the Lusum were enemies of the Katibas, and had not submitted to Brooke rule. Besides this, they said that the government should not sentence Balang to death without a trial.

Gerinang asked Enjop and his relatives to give him and Unggat time to discuss among themselves whether they agreed to join them in rebelling against the govern¬ment. He said that to fight against the government was dangerous and required very careful consideration. Enjop and Balang’s son-in-law said that they already had asked the people of Kanowit and Julau to support their rebellion.

Later Unggat and Gerinang told Enjop and his relatives that they could not reinforce them since, as they put it, they could not seek victory against the warleaders of the Saribas and Skrang Iban who were their relatives, and were now siding with the government.

Due to the joining of Unggat and Gerinang with Enjop and Balang’s relatives in their enmity against the Rajah, fighting suddenly broke out in the Katibas in 1868.

While Naga and his people lived at Batu Gong they were twice attacked by the Rajah’s force during the first and second Katibas expeditions against Enjop, the brother of Balang, in 1869 and 1870. In his wrath against the government for executing Balang unjustly, Lintong ‘Moahari” of Kanowit attacked the Sibu fort in 1870, the year of the second and third expeditions launched by the Brooke government against the Katibas Iban.

During the first Katibas expedition, Manggi’s bong tekam boat defeated the Rajah’s boat; thereby causing the latter’s troops to retreat unconditionally. But during the second expedition this same boat of Manggi’s was driven back and Manggi and many of his warriors were killed.

Enjop and his followers were reinforced by Iban from Julau, Kanowit and Kanyau in Indonesian Borneo. This trouble continued until 1871 and involved three successive punitive expeditions.

After Manggi’s death, Naga ordered a warrior of his, named Ridun to lead a migra¬tion into the Baleh River. Ridun and his followers settled temporarily at the mouth of the Selidong stream near the mouth of the Baleh. There they met with a lot of trouble. They were attacked by the Logats and Ukit tribes. To avoid this Ridun moved to Resa in the Yong stream, where he died of old age. Around the same time Naga died in the Katibas.

Due to the revolt of the Katibas Iban, the upper Batang Ai Iban under chief Ngumbang, while reinforcing their relatives, were attacked by the Rajah in 1868. These troubles were the first signs of what became continuing unrest in the headwaters of the Batang Ai and the Batang Rajang which was to last until 1919.

Labar succeeded Ridun as leader in the Yong. From Yong, Labar led a migration to the Baleh and lived at the mouth of Kemali stream just above Lepong Kain, While Labar and his people were settled there, they were frequently attacked by the Lugats, who lived along the Gaat tributary. Labar died at the Nanga Kemali settlement, and the Baleh Iban no longer had an influential leader, as Unggat and Gerinang lived far away in the Katibas. Due to this, the Baleh Iban sent for Mujah “Buah Raya” of the Julau and Entabai to lead them against the Lugats at Nanga Gaat. Mujah “Buah Raya”, with two hundred warriors went to attack over one thousand of the enemy. The latter defended themselves bravely, but their wooden shields were broken by the stones thrown by Mujah’s warriors, and they were defeated. After their defeat the Lugat fled to the upper Baleh and lived at the Nanga Laii, Nanga Sengkala and Nanga Singut settlements. From these longhouses they fled once more, escaping further Iban raids, to the Mahakam River in Indonesian Borneo. In this new country they are said to have settled at a place called Bila Baii.

Many years later, after the Iban had defeated the Lugats at Nanga Gaat, a Lugat chief named Oyong Ojat, came to visit an Iban longhouse at Nanga Sembawang. In his conversation with this host, he said that when he was a boy he had been one of the people defeated by the Iban under Mujah “Buah Raya” at Nanga Gaat. He could remember his family’s house before it was attacked by Mujah’s men.

In the Katibas, after Unggat and Gerinang had died, they were succeeded as chiefs by their sons Keling and Mata Hari, who led a great number of Iban to the Sut, Gaat and Mujong tributaries of the Baleh. The people of these Rivers still regard the descendants of Naga and Sumping as being of their original line of chiefs, for their ancestors led the migrations from the Batang Ai to the Kanyau, Katibas and finally to the Baleh River where these Iban live today. (Naga & Sumping were the descendent of Seremat Chief named Bau and Salengka mentioned earlier in EIM Part 2 who was also directly related to Saribas, Batang Ai, Dau & Balau Iban)

From Pulau Ensulit in Indonesia, Jubang moved up the Piang River and settled temporarily at Emperan Tebelian. From this settlement, he and his people migrated into the Katibas in Sarawak territory via Sungai Ayat in order to settle at the Bangkit stream. From the Bangkit, Jubang and his people moved down the main Katibas River to the Rajang and then up that river to settle in the Sut, a tributary of the Baleh. While he was living in the Sut, Jubang joined Gerinang’s war against the Pieng Dayaks in the Mahakam River in Indonesian territory, and there he was killed. At the time of his father’s death, Koh lived at Nanga Dia where he was appointed Penghulu by the Raj all because he had obeyed the government wishes in not taking revenge upon the Julau Iban who had killed his cousin named Lanau during the fighting at Bukit Balong.

After he had attacked the Piengs, Gerinang led another war against the Lusum Dayaks at Keluan and defeated them. As a result of this the Lusum Dayak fled to settle in the Baram. In their place at Keluan, the Badang Dayak have lived there to the present day. Gerinang was imprisoned by the Rajah for this attack on the Lusum, but later he was appointed Penghulu, succeeding his deceased grandfather Penghulu Keling.

In Jubang’s company from the Katibas there was a Nanga Delok man named Melintang. When he arrived in the Baleh he was permitted by the chiefs of that river to live with his followers in the Merirai tributary. He was appointed the first Penghulu of that river in 1942 but died shortly after his appointment. After his death he was succeeded by his grandson the late Tun Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Temenggong Jugah, the former Federal Minister for Sarawak Affairs after Sarawak was given in¬dependence within the Malaysian Federation in 1963.

Jubang, the father of Temenggong Koh, left Lubang Baya in the Batang Ai to migrate to the Kanyau River where he lived at Pulau Ensulit. It was at this settlement that he married Garong, the daughter of chief Ba, and their child was Temenggong Koh, the well known Iban chieftain of modern Sarawak, who died in 1955.

Katibas River is a river in Sarawak state, Malaysia. It is a tributary of the Rajang River.

1)Balang Mati di ganyang (hukum mati ) pada 1868
2)Iban warriors under Rajah's Rule
3) Bup Iban Sarawak Pegai Rajah Brooke


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wynchester unyau said...

aku minat ke sejarah iban, thank laban udah post.. mayuh pekara ke diguna ba dalam blog nuan tuk tamabah mega nuan pen peturn Balang mpu.. ka nanya nuan, kati ko Jaku Balang empu dalam bup Iban Pegai Rajah Brooke, ya madah diri deka datai udah peturun ya ke tujuh? kati tuk jaku amat tauka digaga.. thank you..

Anonymous said...

Lapa nuan penturun Balang enda nusoi jerita ia ngau silik agi baka ripih kayau ia, brapa igi tampun ia alu gawai amat ti didirike ia?

Nama kabuah nadai bala Balang nitihke ia ti ditangkap Resident Cruicshank alu dibai ke Sibu?

Anonymous said...

Ulih nuan nusoi jerita Balang ari kitak bala ia empu? Ulih nusoi tusut kitak agai Balang?

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